The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) is established by Arbor Research. Now conducted in more than 20 countries, the DOPPS family of studies has illuminated the effects of dialysis practices on a wide range of patient outcomes. DOPPS, developed by investigators at Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, and joined by co-investigators from U-M, has produced hundreds of peer-reviewed studies examining global dialysis practices and their impact on patient outcomes ranging from anemia management in end-stage renal disease to bone and mineral metabolism in dialysis patients. Variability in practice at the dialysis facility level and at the country level and a novel cohort study design incorporating randomly selected facilities and randomly selected incident dialysis patients, enabled DOPPS researchers to document the critical importance of native arteriovenous fistula over prosthetic graft or temporary catheter-based dialysis. More recently, the DOPPS Practice Monitor (DPM) has examined the effects of changing reimbursement systems (the so-called ESRD bundle) on dialysis practice, access to care, management of anemia, and a host of other outcomes important to patients, providers, and payers.