The origins of the University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is founded in Detroit in 1817. In 1837, the Board of Regents held its first meeting in Ann Arbor and formally accepted the proposal by the town to locate the university there. The first college-level classes were held at U-M in Ann Arbor in 1841.
Beginnings of the U-M School of Dentistry
The U-M School of Dentistry is founded as the College of Dental Surgery, making U-M the first state university in the world and the second university in the U.S. to offer education in dentistry. The college was renamed the School of Dentistry in 1927.
Public Health moves to new graduate division
The Board of Regents highlights the interdisciplinary nature of public health by moving programs from the Medical School to a new Graduate School Division of Hygiene.
“The Social and Economic Aspects of Public Health and Medicine”
“The Social and Economic Aspects of Public Health and Medicine,” believed to be first course on medical care organization and financing offered at a U.S. university, is taught at U-M.
First master of social work degree
U-M offers its first master of social work degree (MSW) through the Institute of Public and Social Administration (later to become the Institute of Social Work in 1946).
Sinai helps develop voluntary health insurance plan
U-M’s Nathan Sinai, a professor of Hygiene and Public Health, develops a voluntary health insurance plan with the Michigan State Medical Society that later becomes a prototype for Blue Shield.
“Public Health Economics and Medical Care Abstracts” published
Public Health Economics and Medical Care Abstracts [which eventually became Medical Care Review (1967) and subsequently Medical Care Research and Review (1995)] is published by the U-M Bureau of Public Health Economics in the School of Public Health [see next].
Regents approve Bureau of Public Health Economics
The Board of Regents approves the Bureau of Public Health Economics within the School of Public Health. Its Medical Care Reference Collection becomes the nation’s primary source of archival information on community aspects of medical care.
Institute for Social Research established at U-M
The Institute for Social Research (ISR), among the world’s largest and oldest academic survey research organizations, and a leader in the development and application of social science methods and education, is established at U-M. ISR’s portfolio of work includes a breadth of research examining the relationships between human health, behavior, and social factors. Rensis Likert, an organizational psychologist and developer of the Likert Scale, served as ISR’s first director (pictured at left with Angus Campbell, ISR’s co-founder and second director).
Thomas Francis Jr. concludes field trials of Salk polio vaccine
SPH Professor Thomas Francis Jr. concludes the two-year national field trials of the Salk polio vaccine, and on April 12 announces to the world that the vaccine developed by his former student Jonas Salk is “safe, effective, and potent.”
Tecumseh Community Health Study launches
The Tecumseh Community Health Study begins through the efforts of SPH and other U-M faculty, focusing on behavioral, environmental, and family factors associated with cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. The study focused on the entire community of Tecumseh, Michigan, rather than a representative sample. The investigators were able to quantify the role of a number of factors involved in the development of coronary heart disease.
Axelrod expands SPH program in Medical Care Organization
SPH Professor S.J. “Sy” Axelrod expands the SPH program in Medical Care Organization, which soon takes on a central role in educating administrators for the Social Security Administration, established by Congress in 1965.
CRUSK begins at ISR
The Center for Research on the Utilization of Scientific Knowledge (CRUSK) is established at ISR; undertakes a variety of HSR and other research until 1985, when its work was largely absorbed into ISR’s three other research centers.
Donabedian publishes “Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care”
Avedis Donabedian’s landmark article “Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care” is published in the Milbank Quarterly, establishing the widely used structure-process-outcome framework. The papers were commissioned by NIH’s Health Services Research Study Section from carefully selected authors as a means of defining the scope, methods, and standards of the field.
Future Directions in Health Services Research Conference
U-M hosts conference on “Future Directions in Health Services Research,” organized by the newly formed Health Services Research Group, a cross-campus organization of health services researchers.
U-M establishes Health Services Research Center
U-M establishes the Health Services Research Center, located within the Office of the Vice President for Research, after receiving one of five original awards from the National Center for Health Services Research (a predecessor of the Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality). U-M’s center continued through 1979.
U-M creates M-CARE
In response to the need to contain medical costs, U-M establishes M-CARE, becoming the second university in the U.S. to create its own managed care program. M-CARE also reviewed, facilitated, and supported clinical and health services research activities and provided a rich source of healthcare data for analysis. It was acquired by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan in 2006.
Warner’s work in tobacco and health
SPH Professor Kenneth Warner serves as senior scientific editor of the 25th anniversary Surgeon General’s report on smoking and health. His Congressional testimony in 1985 helped solidify federal taxation as a smoking disincentive.
The Serious Mental Illness Treatment Resource and Evaluation Center (SMITREC) is established at the Ann Arbor VA in partnership with the Department of Psychiatry. SMITREC is now co-located with CCMR.
Clinical Scholars Program launched
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program launches at U-M. To date, 119 fellows have trained through the U-M program, with the final cohort set to complete the program in 2017.
Arbor Research Collaborative for Health is founded
Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, a future IHPI local partner, was founded by U-M researchers as the University Renal Research and Education Association (URREA); it was renamed in 2006 to better reflect the breadth of its efforts to improve patient care and support the development of sound public healthcare policies.
Origins of the U-M Injury Center
The U-M Injury Center has its origins as the Injury Research Center (founded within the Department of Emergency Medicine by Ron Maio), which in 2010 merged with the Center for Injury Prevention among Youth (founded by Jean Shope in 2008). The Injury Center was designated a CDC-funded Injury Control Research Center in 2012.
Launch of first Collaborative Quality Initiative
A group of five hospitals in Michigan – led by U-M cardiologists and supported by the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation and Blue Care Network – launches the Blue Cross Blue Shield Cardiovascular Consortium-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (BMC2-PCI), an initiative to study variation in angioplasty. This first Collaborative Quality Initiative (CQI) paved the way for more than 20 other BCBSM initiatives, most of them led by U-M medical faculty, to collect, analyze, and share data to improve healthcare processes and outcomes across some of the most common and costly areas of healthcare in Michigan.
Center for Managing Chronic Disease established
The U-M Center for Managing Chronic Disease (CMCD), dedicated to helping people control the effects of chronic illness by conducting research that develops new and better ways to support patients and their caregivers in disease management, is established at U-M.
Masters of Science in Health and Health Care Research program established
The Masters of Science in Health and Health Care Research program is established through Rackham Graduate School, designed for scholars who have been admitted to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program. To date, 154 students have received degrees through the full HHCR MSc program, roughly half of whom were RWJF Clinical Scholars or part of the successor program, the IHPI Clinician Scholars Program.
Healthy Minds Study launches
The Healthy Minds Study (HMS), an annual survey examining mental health service utilization and related issues among undergraduate and graduate students, launches. HMS, based in the School of Public Health with significant involvement from the Institute for Social Research and the U-M Depression Center, has been fielded at more than 125 college and university campuses across the U.S. and internationally, with over 150,000 survey respondents.
V-BID principles incorporated into ACA
Incorporating research from the U-M Center for Value-Based Insurance Design (V-BID), comprehensive healthcare reform is enacted through the Affordable Care Act, including provisions to authorize health plans nationwide to remove barriers for high-value preventive medical services.
CHOP begins at U-M
The Center for Health Outcomes & Policy (CHOP), a consortium of more than 100 faculty and staff, including clinician scientists, economists, biostatisticians, epidemiologists and other social scientists from the Medical School and School of Public Health, is established at U-M.
The Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine (CBSSM), supported by the Dean’s Office at the Medical School, the Department of Internal Medicine, the Department of Psychiatry, and the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center (Center for Clinical Management Research), is established at U-M.
Dialysis payment reforms implemented
The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services implement a new dialysis payment system developed by the U-M Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center (KECC), which leads to a reduction of approximately $225 million per year in Medicare payments for dialysis.
The Center for Clinical Outcomes Development and Application (CODA), whose mission is to achieve excellence in measurement development, selection, and application to improve clinical health research and care, is established at U-M.
Path of Excellence in Health Policy and Economics launched
The Medical School begins offering medical students the choice to pursue a Path of Excellence in Health Policy and Health Economics, in collaboration with IHPI.
The need for innovation and critical evaluation within healthcare and health policy is at one of its greatest in history. IHPI focuses its vision firmly on the future, with its goals and priorities founded on the vibrant work in health services research that has preceded the institute and continues to thrive with new energy and direction.